The end of anatomy, and an extra special wildlife patient! (Day 670)

Baby duckling waking up after fishing hook removal

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Wildlife Feeds by Spikes World

This morning I sat my anatomy final, I am emotionally and mentally exhausted and last night asked my twitter followers to help me through. This they did wonderfully and I drew enough strength from it to get my through my exam today with a D. When you consider how much is needed to be memorised and for so many species you can understand why I am happy with that. Also I have decided that I would rather have practical skills and understanding than straight A’s with just book learning.

After this I popped my head into clinic to see what was happening, surprisingly it was busy with two guinea pig castrations booked in. I ran anesthesia for the first castration surgery and then assisted in the second surgery which was pretty cool.

After this as I was about to leave a member of the public dropped in a duckling with fishing line coming out of it’s mouth. Now this is the first time I have seen it here and so I decided to stick around.

Duckling with fishing line from mouth

We quickly anaesthetised to inspect the mouth and see if we could find the hook, we could not see it in the mouth cavity, and taking a quick look with the endoscope I could not see it in the upper part of the esophagus. Because of the way the esophagus is a elastic tube you normally also need to also introduce air to see further which we do not really have the facilities to do. So it was decided that our next step would be to get xrays to see exactly where the hook was, it was lunchtime so xray was closed which meant we had to wait an hour for this.

When doing xrays it is really important to do both a ventrodorsal (laying on back) and a lateral (laying on side) image as this will let you use your imagination to put them together to get a 3D image. The one on the left below is the lateral image taking from the side, and the one on the right (which also has my measurements for planning the procedure) is the one with the ducking on it’s back (you can click it to see a bigger version).

Ducking with fishing hook in crop lateral and ventrodorsal radiograph viewsFrom the xray you can see that the hook is inside the thoracic cavity (the space between the start of the ribs and the diaphragm) – and if you look at the xray on the right you can see the ribs visible on top of the hook. Now during surgery on the thoracic cavity is very challenging at the best of time so we wanted to avoid this. The easiest way to go and get the hook was through the mouth, so one of the doctors here attempted to slide a tube along the fishing line to see if he could dislodge it whilst I prepared the endoscope.

Chris preparing endoscope to remove fishing hook from ducklingNow I do not know where they came from as I had never seen them before, but I found a pair of grasping forceps (well biopsy forceps originally…) on a rigid attachment for the endoscope so I decided to give this new toy a try. The doctor had failed to get the hook out using the tube so it was time for my performance.

We used isoflurane (a gas anaesthetic) with the duckling so we had to remove the mask to do anything which meant we had a limited time we could do anything before the duckling started waking up and the mask had to be put back. Because of the previous attempt to get the hook out using the tube there was some air trapped inside the esophagus which made visibility better for me and I followed the fishing line down to the hook. Now on the xray it didn’t look it had a very big barb so I made the decision to try and remove it from the lining of the crop which was successful with no bleeding observed. I then caught the point and started to bring it back up the esophagus, near the mouth the hook slipped from my instrument however I was able to grab it again and remove it completely as below with fishing line attached.

Fishing hook after removal from ducklingAll of this took me under 90 seconds to do, and as I brought the hook out the duckling started to wake up. I was a little bit surprised at how quickly I had managed to do something I’ve never done or seen before. We do have a recording system for the endoscope but I was so focused on getting the hook out of the duckling that I totally forgot about this until now though I really wish I had a video of this to share. Instead here is a picture of the duckling with the hook and my new favourite instrument!

Baby duckling waking up after fishing hook removalSo with this I’ll leave you with a request that I am sure has been said a thousand times before…

The great outdoors is great fun, but please make sure the only thing you leave behind is footprints!

Passing Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Day 595)

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Supreme Pet Foods

So this afternoon I sat my final exam in Radiography and Diagnostic Imaging, this was one of my favourite subjects as to me it was directly related to being a vet. Radiographs (xrays) are probably the most basic diagnostic test that a vet can do!

Going forwards today I had to explain the practical side of dental radiology (taking pictures of a animals mouth), followed by long answer questions on the safety of radiology and the navicular bone in horses.

The navicular bone is also known as the distal sesamoid bone and is located between the last two phalanges (finger bones) which means it has two bones on top of it, and the hoof all around it. This makes it very difficult to get good radiographs of this bone, however it is a common cause of lameness in the horse so is very important. There is a common saying here that the best views of the navicular bone are taken after necropsy (post-mortem).

What is an vet school anatomy test like, the Kidneys, and riding (Day 185)

Model showing the anatomy of the kidney in vet school

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Best Pet Hair Remover

I’ve had a request on twitter for an anatomy past paper so someone could see what a vet school anatomy was like here at UVM Kosice. The weekly credit tests (and the final exam) both are mainly oral exams to test your knowledge and so I will talk through today’s exam to give you some idea of what is expected in the anatomy credit test. On entering the anatomy lab I was told to find the cecum in this:

Click to show Image
WARNING: This image is from a dissection and shows week old equine intestines

This image was taken after I had sorted the pile of intestines and the cecum is the part that is descending towards the bottom of the photo. The next question was to name the different parts of the cecum – it has basis ceci where it connects to the ileum and colon, corpus ceci forms the body of the cecum, and apex ceci is the end of the cecum. The cecum is divided in sacculations haustra ceci by teniae ceci with the ileum entering through ostium ileale and the entrance to the colon ostium cecocolicum.

The next question was then to describe the intestine, in the horse this is in three parts the ascending colon (colon crassum), the colon transversum and the colon tenue. The colon crassum is then again broken down as it forms two u-shaped loops… The colon ventrale dextrum leading to flexura sternalis then coming back by colon ventrale sinistrum before flexura pelvina leads to colon dorsale sinistrum to flexura diaphragmaticus and finally colon dorsale dextrum. It then enters the colon transversum before then entering the colon tenue and the rectum. After describing this I was then asked to identify which animal a liver came from, in this case it was a ruminant liver as the lobes were undivided. I then was asked what the differences were with a pig liver – a pig liver does not have processes pappilaris. From knowing this I got a B today.

Anyways onto the main lecture which was looking at the kidney and urinary system. The kidneys are a complex organ which differ greatly between species both in their structure and the way that they function. The kidneys are responsible for controlling how much water is excreted from the body in urine as well as elimination of waste from the blood so as you can see below there is a very large blood supply going to them. The orange tube is the ureter that then leads to the bladder where urine is then stored for release later.

Model showing the anatomy of the kidney in vet school

On the way to horse riding this we rescued a dog from playing chicken with cars on a main road, had a collar so definitely has an owner we just have to find them. Horse riding was at the university riding centre this week which is on the edge of town, it’s somewhere I’ve visited before (check my diary entry on it) so I ended up leading the group. This session ended up being another session working with tack and saddling up. To be honest it’s helped my confidence loads as being perfect at the basics means that I have the knowledge and practical experience to advise clients in the future.